THE GLOBAL PANDEMIC COVID-19 AND HOMOEOPATHY LITERATURE STUDY AIMED AT THERAPEUTICS

Dr. Chaitanya Vaidya (B.H.M.S.)

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

509,164 Confirmed cases Updated : 27 March 2020, 22:01 GMT+5:30

23,335 Confirmed deaths Updated : 27 March 2020, 22:01 GMT+5:30

202 Countries, areas or territories with cases Updated : 27 March 2020, 22:01 GMT+5:30

Introduction:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. 

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available.

PREVENTION

To prevent infection and to slow transmission of COVID-19, do the following:

  • Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, or clean them with alcohol-based hand rub.
  • Maintain at least 1 metre distance between you and people coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching your face.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  • Stay home if you feel unwell.
  • Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.
  • Practice physical distancing by avoiding unnecessary travel and staying away from large groups of people.

SYMPTOMS

The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways.  COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment.  People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.

Common symptoms include:

  • fever
  • tiredness
  • dry cough.

Other symptoms include:

  • shortness of breath
  • aches and pains
  • sore throat
  • and very few people will report diarrhoea, nausea or a runny nose.

People with mild symptoms who are otherwise healthy should self-isolate and contact their medical provider or a COVID-19 information line for advice on testing and referral.

People with fever, cough or difficulty breathing should call their doctor and seek medical attention.

Medicines from various homoeopathic textbooks:

Baptisia tinctoria

* The symptoms of this drug are of an asthenic type, simulating low fevers, septic conditions of the blood, malarial poisoning and extreme prostration.  * Indescribable sick feeling.  * Great muscular soreness and putrid phenomena always are present.  * All the secretions are offensive – breath, stool, urine, sweat, etc.  * Epidemic influenza.  * Chronic intestinal toxaemias of children with fetid stools and eructations.  Baptisia in low dilutions produces a form of anti-bodies to the bac. typhosus, viz., the agglutinins. [Mellon.]  Thus it raises the natural bodily resistance to the invasion of the bacillary intoxication, which produces the typhoid syndrome.  Typhoid carriers.  After inoculation with anti-typhoid serum.  Intermittent pulse, especially in the aged.

Clinical observations Epidemic influenza. Prostration. The neck is tired, cannot hold the head in any position. Septic conditions. 

The premonitory signs are general malaise, weakness, unsteady gait, backache, dull headache with pressure at the root of the nose, bruised feeling in the muscles and soreness of the eyeballs. Then come mental torpor, vertigo with faintness and a peculiar “wild feeling” in the head producing an inability to collect the thoughts, and a consequent aversion to mental effort. Towards evening there is a slight rise in temperature, the wild feeling grows worse especially on closing the eyes, and sleep is disturbed by dreams of excessive physical exertion, running, climbing, or by frequent nightmares from which the patient wakes in a burning heat and wants the windows thrown open.

From its very nature Baptisia is often indicated in the later stages of disease. Yet whenever its characteristic indications are present it must be prescribed. Unaccountable and early weakness, lassitude and sluggish circulation of the affected part are the predominant features. In sore throat, for instance, the mucous membrane is dark red, swollen and ulcerated. Only liquids can be swallowed without choking. Yet there is no pain. The cervical lymphatics swell rapidly; the breath is horribly offensive; and prostration is out of all proportion to the severity of the case.

The same general symptoms are indications for Baptisia in wound infections, epidemic influenza, dysentery, severe gas poisoning, or other ailments in which there are low grade fever, a septic condition of the blood, or extreme putrefaction.

 11. The remedies to be compared with Baptisia are Arnica, Gelsemium, Arsenicum, Rhus tox., Pyrogen, Muriatic acid and Echinacea.

            Coming here crowned with its laurels in the “gastric” type of continued fever, just fills the vacant niche when such symptoms characterise the influenzal pyrexia. A gastro-intestinal form of the disorder was noted by the earlier observers, and has recurred in the present epidemic, as may be seen in the article upon influenza in the new edition of Quain’s Dictionary of Medicine. When the tongue is thickly coated; when there is nausea and vomiting; and when the stools tend to be diarrhoeic especially if also foetid, baptisia, already suited to the pyrexia, becomes so to the whole condition, and will change it for the better more rapidly than any other medicine.

Another disease in which it has proved specific in a large number of cases is epidemic influenza. The besotted look, bleary eyes, aching head, sore throat, pains and soreness all over the body and profound prostration.

The symptoms of this drug are of an asthenic type, simulating low fevers, septic conditions of the blood, malarial poisoning, and extreme prostration. Indescribable sick feeling. Great muscular soreness and putrid phenomena always are present. All the secretions are offensive-breath, stool, urine, sweat, etc. Epidemic influenza. Chronic intestinal toxaemias of children with fetid stools and eructations.

            The symptoms of this drug are of an asthenic type, simulating low fevers, septic conditions of the blood, malarial poisoning and extreme prostration. Indescribable sick feeling. Great muscular soreness and putrid phenomena are always present. All secretions are offensive; breath, stool, urine, sweat, etc. Epidemic influenza.

            “The besotted countenance, bleary eyes, aching head, sore throat, pains and soreness all over the body, and profound prostration which are present in all typical cases of epidemic influenza indicate Bapt. before any other remedy.” [Clarke]

            Clarke writes : “Baptisia has gained its greatest reputation as a remedy in typhoid fever, to the symptoms of which its pathogenesis strikingly corresponds. But it is only when it is used strictly in accordance with its symptoms that it will give successful results. When given as a matter of routine there are sure to be failures. Another disease in which it has proved specific in a large number of cases is epidemic influenza.”

Sarcolacticum acidum

Sarcolacticum acidum is apparently formed in muscle tissue during the stage of muscle exhaustion. Differs from ordinary Lactic acid in its relation to polarized light. It represents a much broader and more profoundly acting drug and its pathogenesis is quite dissimilar from the normal acid. Proved by Wm.B.  Griggs, M.D.  , who found it of great value in the most violent form of Epidemic influenza, especially with violent and retching and greatest prostration, when Arsenic had failed. Spinal neurasthenia, muscular weakness, dyspnoea with myocardial weakness.

Wm. B. Griggs found Sarcol-ac. of great value in themost violent form of epidemic influenza, especially with violent and retching and greatest prostration, when Arsenicum had failed. Locally in the tuberculous ulceration of vocal cords. Planets: Mars, Saturn.

            It has been frequently been astounded by its action in the most violent forms of epidemic influenza, particularly in those few rare cases that began with violent uncontrollable vomiting and retching with the greatest prostration, when arsenicum, though apparently well indicated, failed.

            It is apparently formed in muscle tissue during the stage of muscle exhaustion. Differs from ordinary Lactic acid in its relation to polarized light. It represents a much broader and more profoundly acting drug and its pathogenesis is quite dissimilar from the normal acid. Proved by Wm. B. Griggs, M.D. , who found it of great value in the most violent form of Epidemic influenza, especially with violent retching and greatest prostration,  when Arsenic had failed. Spinal neurasthenia, muscular weakness, dyspnoea with myocardial weakness.

            It iss apparently formed in muscle tissue during the stage of muscle exhaustion. Differs from ordinary Lactic acid in its relation to polarised light. It represents a much broader and more profoundly acting drug and its pathogenesis is quite dissimilar to the normal acid. Proved by Wm. B. Griggs, M.D. , who found it of great value in the most violent form of epidemic influenza, esp. & violent vomiting and retching and greatest prostration, when Ars. had failed. Spinal neurasthenia, muscular weakness, dyspnoea & myocardial weakness. Tired feeling & muscular prostration, agg. any exertion. Sore feeling all over, agg. afternoon. Restless at night. Difficulty in getting to sleep. Tired feeling in morning on getting up.

            INFLUENZA. and Violent vomiting, retching, and greatest prostration.

 “I have frequently been astounded by its action in the most violent form of epidemic influenza, particularly in those few rare cases that began with violent uncontrollable vomiting and retching with the greatest prostration, when Ars. though apparently well indicated failed.” [Griggs]

Antimonium arsenicosum

Antimonium arsenicosum

 (arsenite of antimony)

 * Found useful in emphysema with excessive dyspnoea and cough, much mucous secretion.

 * Worse on eating and lying down.

 * Catarrhal pneumonia associated with influenza.

 * Myocarditis and cardiac weakness.

 * Pleurisy, especially of left side, with exudation and pericarditis, with effusion.

 * Sense of weakness.

 * Inflammation of eyes and oedema of face.

 Dose

 – Third trituration.

Camphora officinalis

            This remedy if taken early, when there is a sensation of cold, will keep an attack away. A drop of spirit of Camphor on sugar every 5 minutes is a traditional remedy for the chill at on set of ‘flu’, but this remedy in potency can also save desperate cases with sudden collapse and icy coldness of body and (strange) aversion to being covered. This differentiates Camphor from Carbo Veg. which has similar collapse but craves fresh air; has much flatulence. Hahnemann discusses the affect of Camphor in the influenza epidemics in Materia Medica Pura where he says, epidemics of influenza endemic in Siberia, which come among us occasionally – Camphor is of service, only as a palliative certainly – but an invaluable palliative, seeing that the disease is one of short duration. “Lilienthal says, ‘Influenza in the spring, more of an asthenic character, beginning with more or less Chilliness or Chills, with Death-like Paleness of the face, often at the same time a desire to be uncovered.”

 (“Amritdhara” which is so popular as a household remedy in India has Camphor as its main ingredient.)

 Note : Some authors recommend sucking or smelling of cinnamonum.

             – In the first stage of suffocative catarrh, with paralysis of the lungs, as found in epidemic influenza, with coryza and nasal defluxion, used internally and by olfaction, it will arrest the catarrh at once.

            At the very beginning of a cold before the chill has passed off. Camphor was recommended by Hahnemann as a remedy for Russian influenza, and has been used with good effect in the recent epidemic, when the initial chill has been great and attended with great prostration. 

Dose: One Camphor pill, or one drop of Rubini’s tincture on sugar, every fifteen minutes until reaction sets in.

Particularly indicated in seasons of epidemic influenza, when females abort almost as generally as the influenza prevails. Especially if she have pale, loose and cold skin with general disposition to catarrhal discharges.

Abortion, particularly during epidemic influenza.

            “Particularly indicated in seasons of epidemic influenza, when females abort almost as generally as the influenza prevails.

 – Especially if she have pale, loose and cold skin, with general disposition to catarrhal discharges.”

– Hahnemann, in the preface to his proving, commends it in the influenza then first known as an epidemic; and Dr. Ringer has lately extolled its virtues in the chronic paroxysmal coryza from which some people suffer.

 – In all these nasal defluxions Camphor should be taken by olfaction as well as internally.

During epidemic influenza; disposition to catarrhs; pale, loose, cold skin.

Abortion – influenza, during – epidemic, during

Camphora may be indicated in threatening abortion, particularly in seasons of epidemic influenza when women abort almost as generally as the influenza prevails; especially when they have pale, loose, cold skin with general disposition to catarrhal discharges.

Abortion

 – During epidemic influenza.

 – Disposition to catarrhs.

 – Pale, loose, cold skin, with general disposition to catarrhal discharges.

Cistus canadensis

– An epidemic of coryza was prevalent, and this was the strongest symptom – the pain caused by inhaling air, great burning from inhaled air.

 – But it is not in the acute coryza that we see the value of this remedy, it is in the old, chronic case, with thick discharge, and a cold feeling or burning in the nose when inhaling air.

Eryngium aquaticum

– Eryng. has a cough with a sense of constriction.

 – (Hale found it useful in epidemic influenza when there was raw smarting burning in throat and larynx, with constant irritating cough and expectoration of yellow mucus.)

            E.M. Hale have found it a valuable remedy in some cases of epidemic influenza which were not readily controlled by Gelseminum and Sticta, when there were raw, smarting, burning sensations in the throat and larynx, with constant irritating cough, and expectoration of tenacious, yellow mucus. This confirms Dr. Morgan’s experience reported in my previous volumes. 

            Ery-a. has a cough with a sense of constriction. Hale found it useful in epidemic influenza when there was raw smarting burning in throat and larynx with constant irritating cough and expectoration of yellow mucus. Loss of energy and nervous weakness.

Eucalyptus globulus

– This agent is derived from the Australian Fever or Blue Gum Tree.

 – The tree has been transplanted into many districts in tropical and semi-tropical climates to control malarious conditions, which it does partially as a result of its capability of absorbing water, and partially from the influence that it has over the development of the plasmodium malaria.

– It is an antiseptic, antipyretic, haemostatic, nutrient, stimulant, deodorant, disinfectant; non-poisonous and non-irritating.

 – When taken internally in small doses it acts as a gentle stimulant, excites the flow of saliva and gastric juices, induces a feeling of buoyancy with increased appetite and produces a feeling of warmth in the upper portion of the alimentary tract.

 – The intestinal secretions are increased and the regular evacuations from the bowels are more copious and easier.

 – In large doses it produces irritation of the throat, with an increased flow of saliva; cephalalgia, herpetic eruptions of the skin, glandular enlargement, with indolent ulcers; in still larger doses it produces a sensation of fatigue, intoxication, with drowsiness and loss of power over the limbs.

 – The bodily temperature is increased, the pulse is quickened; the arterial tension is increased, there is more or less gastric irritation, with a relaxed condition of the bowels, and a sense of weight and uneasiness in the epigastrium, which may assume the dignity of a real diarrhoea.

 – The fluids and solids of the urine are increased in quantity due to its action upon the heart and renal cells.

 – The urine has the odor of violets.

 – Very large dose produces a general physical depression with drowsiness and loss of motor power in the extremities, while the skin is pale, cold and insensible, the pupils are contracted, the pulse is imperceptible, the respiration is short, jerky and interrupted.

 – The peculiar odor of the oil is exhaled by the breath.

 – It is eliminated by the lungs and kidneys and causes an increase in the amount of urea excreted.

 – When applied locally the oil is an irritant, especially if it is allowed to evaporate.

 – When this remedy is indicated the patient presents a picture of toxemia, complains a sensation of exhaustion, weakness of the extremities, chronic catarrh of the bladder; frequently the urine contains pus and is deficient in urea.

 – The mucous membrane in general is relaxed, and there is a profuse catarrhal secretion from it.

 – The tongue presents a pasty appearance and is badly coated, and there may be a foul odour from the mouth.

 – There is sore throat with a foul odour, and frequently a false membrane.

 – The bronchopulmonic tract presents a catarrhal condition.

 – In mamaria it is of service in the chronic cases and mucous colitis.

– It should be remembered in the megrim of plethoric subjects, especially in those who are subjected to malaria, gout and rheumatism, and in cephalalgia due to malaria and other toxic conditions, especially if it is congestive in character, is followed by a rise of temperature, and there is a deficient elimination of the urinary solids.

– It is indicated in acute rhinitis and coryza when the nose seems stuffed and there is a sensation of tightness across the bridge of the nose, with dull frontal headache and a thin watery discharge from the nares.

 – There is irritation of the nasal mucous membrane and burning in the nasopharynx.

 – The ethmoid and frontal sinuses may be involved, there is pain above the eyes and over the nose, and pressure over the region of the ethmoid sinus produces severe pain.

 – It is also of service when these conditions have become chronic and the discharge from the sinuses and nares is purulent and fetid in character.

 – In these cases it will be found serviceable by inhalation as well as internally.

– Its usefulness by these methods during epidemics of influenza, both as a prophylactic and disinfectant, is apparent to all who have employed it.

 – It is equally as beneficial in diseases of the respiratory tract as in laryngitis when this is attended with asthma and a profuse secretion of mucus.

 – In cases of chronic fetid bronchitis with bronchorrhoea, bronchiectasis, emphysema, as well as in that most fatal condition, pulmonic gangrene it should be carefully studied.

 – It should be remembered as an agent to be administered internally, as well as by inhalation in cases of aspiration pneumonia.

 – In those cases of tuberculosis in which there is a catarrhal condition of the pharynx and that of stomach present, with loss of appetite, it will be found that under its influence the catarrhal condition is corrected, the appetite returns and a general systemic improvement is noted.

 – It reduces the amount of the expectoration, allays the cough, controls the haemorrhage, corrects the fetor, and reduces the mixed infection of the sputum.

 – The attending dyspnoea is reduced and all rales apart from those due to pulmonary cavities subside.

 – It may be administered by the intra-tracheal method or hypodermically in pulmonary tuberculosis, and locally in chronic laryngitis.

 – It is easily applied, and is well borne, the digestion is not disturbed, and it gives uniformly good results.

 – A mixture of five parts of oil of Eucalyptus and ninety-five parts of olive oil may be used at first, while later an 8 per cent mixture may be employed.

 – At first 15 minims may be used, and then increased to 45 minims.

 – The treatment may be given daily or upon alternate days.

 – In chronic bronchitis of the aged and the enfeebled it is of great service, especially if the patient presents a septic condition.

 – The sputum is inclined to be fetid.

 – There is more or less gastro-intestinal fermentation and defective elimination from the kidneys.

 – It has been a most potent remedy in advanced and chronic cases of catarrhal cystitis, when the urine is high-coloured and contains an abnormal amount of mucous and pus; urination is often extremely painful.

 – The urine is frequently alkaline in reaction.

 – There is a sensation as though the bladder has lost its expulsive force.

 – A spasmodic stricture may be developed.

– It is indicated in the acute nephritis that complicates the acute infectious diseases, as measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria and influenza, when the case shows signs of a septic condition.

 – There are albumen, renal epithelial cells, hyaline casts, and blood in the urine.

 – The urine gets diminished in quantity, is of high colour, and is turbid.

 – The total amount of urea is much diminished.

 – It should be remembered in chronic desquamative nephritis, and hydronephrosis, when the general indications for the remedy are present.

 – It has been found curative in urethral caruncles.

– It is frequently indicated in cases of septic and typhoid fever.

 – In Australia it has been most thoroughly tested in fevers, in hospitals as well as private practice, and has been pronounced superior to all other remedies.

 – There is a tendency to foulness of the discharges, with high temperature, an accelerated pulse with moderate tension.

 – In typhoid and typhus fever, the temperature is reduced to 100° F., the discharges speedily lose their fetor and convalescence is more rapid.

 – The late Dr. E.M.  Hale speaking of this remedy said: “If I were confined to one remedy in the treatment of typhoid fever I would select this one.”

 – This remedy should be carefully studied in derangement of the stomach, cases of atonic dyspepsia and catarrhal gastritis, when there is a sensation of burning, goneness and faintness in the epigastrium as if he had eaten much, and there is a throbbing in the stomach which is synchronous with the beats of the heart.

 – The digestion is slow and is attended with gaseous distension and eructations.

 – Chronic gastric ulcers are greatly benefited by it.

 – It corrects the acidity, prevents necrosis of the tissue, and promotes healing of the ulcer.

 – When we remember the action of this remedy, it is to be expected that it will have a most positive action in cases of diarrhoea when the stools are thin and watery and are preceded by sharp pains and aching in the lower part of the bowels; also in cases of chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, when stools consists of much mucus and blood, also in cases of typhoid and dysenteric diarrhoea.

 – There is a sensation of great heat in the rectum with tenesmus, marked prostration, haemorrhages and fetor of the stools.

 – It should be remenbered in those cases of pseudo-leukemia that are dependant upon a chronic malarial infection.

 – It is astonishing that this remedy has not found a greater use in the management of scarlet fever and its prevention.

 – An Australian observer states: “If administered before the advent of the disease it will protect the most susceptible, even if exposed, and in the relief when administered in well-developed cases it not only allays the disease but prevents its dissemination.

 – If given early there is an arrest of the eruptions.

 – It controls the angina, and speedily reduces the enlarged cervical glands, and modifies the temperature.

 – If albumen is present in the urine it speedily subsides.

 – When this remedy is indicated in these cases it should be taken internally, and the oil placed upon objects about the patient for inhalation.”

 – Both the oil and eucalyptol are highly serviceable in cases of puerperal sepsis.

 – It should be introduced into the cavity of the uterus by means of absorbent cotton, fresh tampons should be applied from time to time, and the tretment continued fro two or three days following the disappearance of the fever.

 – Following the application there is soon a subsidence of the local phenomena and particularly of the fever.

 – It excites a hyperleucocytosis that is destructive to bacteria and yet does not produce any toxic effects.

 – The influence of the oil as an agent in the controlling of pyorrhoea has been long recognized.

 – When the teeth have been cleaned its application to the gums not only controls the development of the pyogenic bacteria but stimulates the local cells.

 – The eucalyptus has been employed locally to prevent sepsis following extensive burns – eucalyptus oil with olive oil 1 to 5.

 – In case of sea-sickness in delicate patients the eucalyptus in the form of lozenges has been found of service.

 – They are carried by the patient and one taken when there is a feeling of sickness.

 – Three or four taken a day often are of great benefit.

 – Eucalyptus is an antidote to strychnia.

 – A decoction of the leaves of eucalyptus globulus and a solution of a salt of strychnin form a flocculent precipitate.

 – In animals, when these drugs were given simultaneously the animals survived.

– Eucalyptol is an organic oxide (cineol) obtained from the volatile oil during distillation.

-It is effective in influenza, fever, cough, typhoid, rheumatism asthma etc. It is perspiring agent and is an expectorant.

* Eucalyptus is a powerful antiseptic and destructive to low forms of life, a stimulating expectorant and an efficient diaphoretic.

 * Atonic dyspepsia, gastric and intestinal catarrh.

 * A remedy with marked effects on catarrhal processes, malaria, and intestinal disturbance.

 * Influenza.

 * Fevers of a relapsing character.

 * Produces diuresis and great increase of urea.

 * Haemorrhages internally and locally. [Hamam.]

 * Typhoid.

 * Symptoms of exhaustion and toxaemia.

 * Conditions of the mucous surfaces of the air passages, genito-urinary organs and gastro-intestinal tract.

 * A gastro-intestinal irritant with pain in stomach and upper intestines several hours after eating.

 Head

 – Exhilaration.

 – Desire for exercise.

 – Dull congestive headache.

 – Coryza; sore throat.

 – Eyes smart and burn.

 Nose

 – Stuffed-up sensation; thin, watery coryza; nose does not stop running; tightness across bridge.

 – Chronic catarrhal, purulent and fetid discharge.

 – Ethmoid and frontal sinus involved.

 Throat

 – Relaxed, aphthous condition of mouth and throat.

 – Excessive secretion of saliva.

 – Burns, feels full.

 – Constant sensation of phlegm in throat.

 – Enlarged, ulcerated tonsils and inflamed throat. (Use tincture locally).

 Stomach

 – Slow digestion.

 – Much fetid gas.

 – Beating and goneness with pulsation in epigastric arteries.

 – Spleen hard and contracted.

 – Pain in epigastrium and upper abdomen ameliorated by food.

 – Malignant disease of stomach with vomiting of blood and sour fluid.

 Abdomen

 – Acute diarrhoea.

 – Aching pains in bowels with feeling of impending diarrhoea.

 – Dysentery, with rectal heat; tenesmus; haemorrhage.

 – Diarrhoea; stools thin, watery, preceded by sharp pains.

 – Typhoid diarrhoea.

 Urinary

 – Acute nephritis complicating influenza.

 – Haematuria.

 – Suppurative inflammation of kidneys.

 – Urine contains pus and is deficient in urea.

 – Bladder feels loss of expulsive force.

 – Burning and tenesmus; catarrh of bladder; diuresis; urethral caruncle.

 – Spasmodic stricture; gonorrhoea.

 Respiratory

 – Asthma, with great dyspnoea and palpitation.

 – Moist asthma.

 – Expectoration white, thick mucus.

 – Bronchitis in the aged.

 – Bronchorrhoea. [Bals. Peru.]

 – Profuse expectoration of offensive muco-pus.

 – Irritative cough.

 – Whooping-cough in rachitic children.

 – Fetid form of bronchitis, bronchial dilatation and emphysema.

 Female

 – Leucorrhoea, acrid, fetid.

 – Ulcer around orifice of urethra.

 Extremities

 – Rheumatic pains; worse at night, walking or carrying anything.

 – Stiff, weary sensation.

 – Pricking sensation, followed by painful aching.

 – Nodular swellings over metacarpal and metatarsal joints.

 Skin

 – Glandular enlargements and nodular swelling over joints.

 – Foul and indolent ulcers.

 – Herpetic eruptions.

 Fever

 – Elevation of temperature.

 – Continued and typhoid fevers.

 – Scarlet fever (protective and curative).

 – Discharges show a tendency to foulness, high temperature, accelerated but not strong pulse.

 – Use the tincture.

  Dose

 – Tincture in one to 20 drop doses, and lower potencies.

 – Also Oil of Eucalyptus in five-drop doses.

 It is also called the Fever or the Blue Gum tree.

 It belongs to the natural order of Myrtaceae.

 It is a tree of great height, and is a native of Australia.

 It has a capacity for absorbing water.

 It is also supposed to destroy malarial poison.

 The tincture is prepared from the fresh leaves.

 It has a marked catarrhal effect; hence it makes an important remedial agent in influenza and other ailments affecting the mucous surfaces of the human body.

 It is also a powerful diaphoretic; it has been used with very fine result in exhausting nightsweats.

 Fistulous ulcers discharging offensive, ichorous matter and other varieties of putrid sore, also respond to its influence.

 It has been recommended as a wash, in distilled water, in foul smelling, ill-conditioned ulcers and wounds.

 It is also a great antidote against strychnine.

 It has been found, that a decoction prepared from Eucalyptus not only alleviates, but also modifies convulsions caused by strychnine.

            It has been strongly advocated in chronic catarrh of the nasal passage discharging purulent and fetid matter.

 A stuffed up feeling in the nose, with thin watery coryza and a sensation of an acute catarrhal condition respond equally to the influence of Eucalyptus.

            In the mouth we have an aphthous condition and an excessive secretion of saliva.

 Enlarged ulcerated tonsils and inflamed throat also improve under its influence.

 As a catarrhal remedy it comes in after Aconite and Belladonna had partially relieved the virulence of the acute stage, but failed to arrest the progress of the disease.

            The most important symptom of Eucalyptus, however, is a peculiar vascular condition of the region near about the abdominal aorta.

 A distinct pulsation, due to increased vascularity, is referred to in the above-named region.

 Sometimes it is described as an uncomfortable feeling of weight and fullness in the epigastrium.

 This feeling is associated with a sensation of goneness as in Phosphorus, Sepia, and Sulphur.

 It has been recommended in dysentery when found in conjunction with the above-mentioned symptoms.

 Heat in the rectum, tenesmus, prostration and haemorrhage from the bowels are some of its indications.

On the kidneys, however, its actions are still more marked.

 The urine becomes loaded with pus.

 Burning and tenesmus, suppression of urine, and haematuria call for its application in acute and chronic nephritis.

 We have records of Eucalyptus, curing vascular tumours of female urethra.

 Ulcers around the orifice of the urethra have also been cured by Eucalyptus.

Thus it makes quite an important remedy for us, not to relegate it to the forgotten shelf of useless remedies.

– The gum-tree is a native of Australia and is transplanted to marshy districts in mild climates on account of its capability of absorbing water and its alleged power of destroying malarial poisons.

 – It has familiarized to everybody during the influenza epidemic as a prophylactic and disinfectant.

 – The provings show that it causes most of the ordinary influenzal symptoms.

 – It is therefore homoeopathic to the disorder.

 – It produces coryza, headache of a dull, congestive character, sore-throat, indigestion, with excessive development of fetid gas, and fever.

 – Slow digestion is the characteristic.

 – The fever may be of the relapsing or intermittent type.

 – It has also proved useful in convalescence from intermittents.

 – It produces odorous sweat.

 – C. E. Fischer has cured with it many cases of dysentery.

 – Certain vascular conditions come within its sphere : a distinct beating in the stomach region, accompanying a sense of goneness; one prover referred this to the abdominal aorta.

            In intermittent or malaria of all types, relapsing fever, i.e. , patient was cured for a week or two but the fever has relapsed, especially of malarious origin, in which spleen becomes swollen and tender. It is useful in extreme weakness after influenza or when the elevated (high) fever is over, with exhausting diarrhoea, pain in the bowels, dysentery with heat in bowels, tenesmus, much foetid gas.

After quinine abuse with its characteristic headache, roaring in ears, general malaise, as if coryza (influenza) would set in.

Influenza with exhausting sweats.

Watery coryza and nasal obstruction; later a purulent discharge.

Aphthae in the mouth and pharynx.

Heaviness or pulsation in the epigastrium.

Respiratory illness following influenza. Severe, irritated cough.

Diseases – NEPHRITIS, kidneys, – influenza, after

Herbal

 Eucalyptus the gum-tree is a native of Australia. It was transplanted to marshy districts in mild climates on account of its capability of absorbing water and its alleged power of destroying malarial poisons. Eucal. has been familiar to everybody during the influenza epidemic as a prophylactic and disinfectant. Eucalyptus is a powerful anti-septic and disinfectant. The volatile oil possesses in common with other terpenes, the property of converting water in presence of air and sunlight into hydrogen peroxide or to convert oxygen into ozone. This is the explanation usually given of its deodorizing and anti-septic properties. (Merrel.) Used locally in catarrhal affections, especially when of a suppurating or putrid nature.

 Homeopathic

 Eucalyptus affects the mucous membranes, producing profuse catarrhal discharges, which are acrid and foul with aching, stiffness and weariness as from taking cold.

 A remedy with marked effects on catarrhal processes, malaria and intestinal disturbance. Fevers of a relapsing character. Atonic dyspepsia, gastric and intestinal catarrh.

 Eucalyptus produces remarkable bodily exhaustion, no desire for any motion, unable to do any real mental work, study, etc. Produces diuresis and increase of urea.

 Hemorrhages internally and locally, (Ham.) Typhoid. Exhausted with toxemia and hemorrhage. A gastro-intestinal irritant with pain in stomach and upper intestines several hours after eating. Malaria. Sticking jerking pains at night. Rheumatism.

 Influenza, it is said to be a preventive for influenza. Eucalyptus causes most of the ordinary influenza symptoms. It is therefore homeopathic to the disorder. It produces coryza, headache of a dull, congestive character, sore-throat.

 Indigestion with excessive development of fetid gas and fever. Slow digestion is the characteristic. The fever may be of the relapsing or intermittent type. It has also proved useful in convalescence from intermittents. It produces odorous sweat.

In influenza, where abdominal symptoms are prominent 2 to 5 drops of eucalyptus oil may be taken before dinner and supper for a few days. This often is very effective. As the oil is not well borne by the stomach and its action on the kidneys too pronounced it should not be given often. For general internal use the specific tincture is to be given only.

            It is a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant. It affects the mucous membranes, producing profuse catarrhal discharges; which are acrid, and foul; with aching, stiffness and weariness as from taking cold.

Influenza. Exhausted with toxaemia and haemorrhage. Said to be a preventative of influenza.

            Suffers from malaria, slow digestion, nervous headache, copious saliva, severe pain on urinating, the urine has the odor of violets, pain in the limbs if one walks or carries anything, throat sore, flatus and sweat are offensive, a beating and gone sense in the stomach, burning pains and sensations predominate, is worse at night, she has a stabbing pain below the left nipple. Clinical: Dysentery, heat in the rectum, tenesmus, mucus discharge, prostration. Said to be a preventative of influenza. Dysentery, haemorrhage; typhoid.

            BLACKWOOD: “Its usefulness by these methods (of inhalation as well as internally) during epidemics of influenza both as a prophylactic and disinfectant, is apparent to all the have employed it.” ”It is indicated in the acute nephritis that complicates the acute infectious diseases, such a measles, scarlet fever, diphteria, and influenza, when the case shows signs of a septic condition.” ”It is frequently indicated in cases of septic and typhoid fever.”

 ALLEN: “All fevers tend to low types with subnormal temperature. Relapsing fevers of tuberculous subjects; the so called la grippe, sporadic influenza.”

 BOGER: “Fever with aching. Cough of influenza.”

 BOERICKE: “Elevation of temperature. Continued and typhoid fevers. Scarlet fever (protective and curative). Discharges show a tendency to foulness, high temperature, accelerated but not strong pulse. Fevers of a relapsing character.”

 CLINICAL: remittent fevers; continued fever; typhoid; scarlet fever; hectic fevers; influenza.

            Eucalyptus is a powerful antiseptic and destructive to low forms of life, a stimulating expectorant and an efficient diaphoretic. Atonic dyspepsia, gastric and intestinal catarrh. A remedy with marked effects on catarrhal processes, malaria, and intestinal disturbances. Influenza. Fevers of a relapsing character. Produces diuresis and great increase of urea.

Haemorrahges internally and locally. [Hamam.] Typhoid.

Symptoms of exhaustion and toxaemia. Conditions of the mucous surfaces of the air passages, genito-urinary organs and gastro-intestinal tract.

 A gastro-intestinal irritant with pain in stomach and upper intestines several hours after eating.

Distribution: Australia, Tasmania, southern Europe and California.

Introduced in Nilgiris, Annamalai, Palni, Simla hills and Shillong.

History and authority: Introduced by Roder, Allg. Hom. Zeit. 78, 46; Allen; Encyclop. Mat. Med., Vol. IV, 228; Clarke: A Dict. of Pract. Mat. Med., Vol. I, 720.

Eucalyptus is a powerful antiseptic and destructive to low forms of life, a stimulating expectorant and an efficient diaphoretic. Atonic dyspepsia, gastric and intestinal catarrh. A remedy with marked effects on catarrhal processes, malaria, and intestinal disturbance. Influenza;  said to be a preventive of influenza. Fevers of a relapsing character. Produces diuresis and great increase of urea. Haemorrhages internally and locally [Ham.]. Typhoid. Symptoms of exhaustion and toxemia. Conditions of mucous surfaces of air-passages, genito-urinary organs and gastrointestinal tract. A gastrointestinal irritant with pain in stomach and upper intestines several hours after eating. It affects the mucous membranes, producing profuse catarrhal discharges; which are acrid, and foul; & aching, stiffness and weariness as from taking cold. Sticking, jerking pains at night. Burning pains and sensations predominate.  At the climacteric, in women who suffer much from flatulence, palpitation of heart, and sudden flushings of face. Irresistible desire to move about.

Urinary

Bladder feels loss of expulsive force. Burning and tenesmus. Acute nephritis complicating influenza. Haematuria. Suppurative inflammation of kidneys. Urine contains pus and is deficient in urea. Catarrh of bladder; diuresis; urethral caruncle. Spasmodic stricture of urethra; gonorrhoea. Urine has odour of violets. Incontinence of urine, nocturnal and diurnal.

Natrium sulphuricum

Natrium sulphuricum is Schuessler’s specific for epidemic influenza where it has given good account of itself; witness Plumb Brown’s case records. T. K. Moore.

Nat. sul. is Schussler’s specific for epidemic influenza.

Epidemic influenza. Rest aggravates most ailments. They must change position frequently, but it is painful and gives little relief..

            Nat. s. is Schuesslers specific for epidemic influenza where it has given good account of itself, witness Plumb Browns case records. But specific for any disease is a lie, there being no such animal. so if we have any such motion, the sooner we dismiss it as a myth, the better for our prescribing. Consideration of results, ultimates of disease, as basis for a prescription is another stumbling-block just as difficult to eradicate from our slow-learning minds.

 – Catarrhal discharge from nose, yellowish green.

 – Epistaxis before and during menses; in afternoon and evening.

 – Dryness and burning in the nose.

 – Obstructed with mucus in the night.

 – Mucus drawn from posterior nares tasting salty.

 – Sneezing with fluent coryza and influenza.

 – Epidemic influenza.

 – Chunks of dried mucus blow from high up in nose.

Natrium sulphuricum

 – Synonyms : Sodium Sulphate of Soda, Glauber’s Salt. Formula Na2SO4, 1O H2 O.

 – Source : It is a chemical compound which occurs abundantly in nature; Sea water. Saline springs contain sodium Sulphate.

 – Preparations : Pure Sodium Sulphate is triturated as directed in the Homoeopathic pharmacopoeas.

 – Proved by Schretter in 1832, Nenning, Von Crauvogl and W.H.  Schussler.

Indications

 – It is a SPECIFIC remedy for:

9. Epidemic influenza with fluent coryza and sneezing.

            Nat-s. is Schussler’s specific for epidemic influenza. Grauvogl and Schussler used Nat-s. in the lower triturations, but homeopaths need not confine themselves to any. When the correspondence is exact the highest potencies will act better than the lower, when the likeness is more general the lower will give the best results.

 – Catarrhal discharge from nose, yellowish green.

 – Epistaxis before and during menses; in afternoon and evening.

 – Dryness and burning in the nose.

 – Obstructed with mucus in the night.

 – Mucus drawn from posterior nares tasting salty.

 – Sneezing with fluent coryza and influenza.

 – Epidemic influenza.

Eupatorium perfoliatum

            Catarrhal fever, or epidemic influenza, when attended by the peculiar pains and other symptoms of Boneset, but having in addition intense bronchial irritation with sever cough, has been treated successfully with it.

 In all these fevers, and even in the beginnings of typhoids, the Eupatorium is looked upon as a specific by the country people. They always give it in infusion, a small quantity of the leaves (3ij. Or iv.) in a quart of water. If there is no vomiting it is given in a warm infusion which causes vomiting, which is not considered a bad symptom when caused by the remedy. If much vomiting and gastric irritation is present it is given cold, when it allays and arrest it.

 When practicing in malarious districts, you will observe, as I often have, that the Boneset macerated in whisky, is generally recommended and used as a preventive of “fever and ague.” I can tescity from own personal experience, that a few drops of the tincture, taken several times daily, is an excellent prophylactic to prevent the return of intermittents and bilious remittents.

 The headaches of Eupatorium are in keeping with the general character of the medicine. They are such headaches as are caused by hepatic derangement. Some persons are subject to attacks which they call bilious sick-headaches, in which vomiting of bile constitutes the principal symptom. The headache usually come on in the morning, preceded by thirst and chilliness; the pain is in the top and back part of the head.

 Headache with pain and soreness in the eye-balls indicates this remedy.

 Congestion of the liver, with an oppressive feeling of soreness, fullness, and tightness in the hepatic region, yellow tongue, cough, vomiting and purging of bile, indicates this remedy. Small doses will cure, because the above are primary symptoms of the drug.

 You may occasionally find it useful in ordinary bilious vomiting and diarrhoea of adults and children. In such cases, when closely indicated, the higher dilutions may act favorably.

 The catarrhal symptoms of Eupat. are quite notable. It has cured “nocturnal loose cough,” “hoarse, rough cough with scraping in the bronchia,” “violent cough with soreness in the chest,” “cough with flushed face and tearful eyes-the patient supports the chest with his hands,” “coughs with soreness and heat in the bronchia,” etc. The cough resembles those of Phosphorus, Bryonia and Sticta. I would suggest its usefulness in those coughs called “liver-coughs,” with undoubtedly owe their origin to derangement of that organ. Generally however, the coughs of Eupat. are connected with other symptoms indicating that remedy.

 It is said to have cured asthma and bronchitis with great dyspnoea, but I have never used it in such cases.

 Although Dr. Williamson recommends it in rheumatic, gouty, and even dropsical affections, I doubt its adaptability to such conditions.

 Be careful to distinguish this medicine from another belonging to the same genus of plants-the Eupat. purpureum, for the two are quite different in their action.

Catarrhal symptoms

 * Flowing coryza; sneezing; hoarseness.

 * Hacking cough in the evening.

 * Cough, with soreness and heat in the bronchia.

 0 Cough aggravated in the evening.

 0 Hectic cough from suppressed intermittent fever.

 0 Violent cough, with soreness in the chest.

 0 Epidemic influenza.

 0 Cough, with flushed face and tearful eyes; he has to support the chest with his hands.

Smell and nose

 – ¤ The smell of food, odors and cooking produced qualmishness.

 – ã Nose very dry and stopped up.

 – ¤ Fluent coryza; sneezing; hoarseness.

 – ¤¤ Coryza, with aching in every bone.

 – ¤ Catarrh, with sore fauces; with costiveness.

 – || Influenza : with weakness of pulse and great prostration; with pain in bones; with pain in back and limbs; lassitude; skin bathed in perspiration; surface pale and morbidly sensitive; of old people and inebriates.

 – ¤ Epidemic influenza.

Bruised feeling, as if broken, all over the body.

Bone pains affecting back, head, chest, limbs, especially the wrists, as if dislocated. The more general and severe, the better adapted. (Bry., Merc).

 Painful soreness of eyeballs; coryza, aching in every bone; great prostration in epidemic influenza. (Lac. can.).

 Pains come quickly and go away quickly. (Bell., Mag. Phos., Eup. per.).

 Vomiting preceded by thirst. Vomiting of bile at close of chill or hot stage; throbbing headache. Knows chill is coming on because he cannot drink enough.

 Perspiration relieves all symptoms except headache.

 Coryza, with sneezing. Hoarseness and cough with soreness in chest; must support it.

 Bryonia is the nearest analogue having free sweat, but pains keep patient quiet; while Eup. has scanty sweat and pains make patient restless.

LIPPE A. Von, Keynotes and Red Line symptoms of the Materia Medica Part I

Influenza (or La Grippe): Great soreness and aching of the entire body; hoarseness and cough, with great soreness of the larynx and chest; a great coryza and thirst, and drinking causes vomiting; the cough hurts the head and chest and the patient holds the chest with the hands (Bry.) (B.). Prostration in epidemic influenza (La Grippe) (Ars., Phos.) (N.). Cough decreased by getting on hands and knees (N.). Cough: chronic; loose with hectic; chest sore, must support it with hands (Bry., Nat-C., Phos.); worse at night; following measles or suppressed intermittents (A.). VERY RESTLESS, CAN’T KEEP STILL, ALTHOUGH THERE IS A GREAT DESIRE TO DO SO, AND IS NOT RELIEVED BY MOTION.

– Great prostration in influenza epidemic- : Eup p, Lac c.

            Influenza is an acute infectious epidemic disease, characterised by a series of catarrhal manifestations affecting the respiratory and frequently the digestive tract. It has (1) prostration, (2) pains in the bones and limbs, (3) severe nervous symptoms and (4) fever (C.G.  Raue). Dr. Nash writes, “What distinguishes influenza (which is really nothing more than a violent catarrhal fever) from other fevers of this class is the circumstance, that influenza attacks the whole nervous system at once, sometimes with rheumatic pains in the limbs, more or less lameness, fever and inflammatory symptoms which may increase to a genuine acute bronchitis or pleuritis.”

            – Painful soreness of eyeballs; coryza; aching in every bone; prostration in epidemic of influenza. (La Grippe). Deep hard achings as if in the bones, with sore, bruised feeling all over, back, arms, wrists, legs. Vomiting of bile between chill and heat. Chill 7 to 9 a.m. Hoarseness in the morning, with soreness in chest when coughing; holds it with his hands.

            KENT: “The common winter colds…..are attended with much sneezing and coryza, pain in the head, as if it would burst, which is aggravated from motion, chilliness with the desire to be warmly covered; the bones ache as if they would break; there is fever, thirst, and a general aggravation from motion. Such common everyday colds correspond sometimes to Eup-per. And sometimes to Bry. These two remedies are very similar, but the aching in the bones is marked in Eup-per.”  ”…..but Eup-per. Is often indicated in the warmer climates for fevers, yellow fever, bilious fever, break-bone fever and intermittent fever.”  ”The most prominent symptoms are the vomiting of bile , the aching in the bones as if they would break, the pains in the stomach after eating, and the nausea from the thought and smell of food.” 

ALLEN: “Bruised feeling, as if broken, all over the body. (Arn., Pyr.).”

 ”Pains as if broken; come quickly and go away as quickly (Bell.).”

 ”Painful soreness of eyeballs; coryza; aching in every bone; great prostration in epidemic influenza.”

 ”Much shivering even during heat.”

 ”A swallow of water makes him shiver.”

 ”When there is much perspiration, it brings relief of all pains except cephalalgia, which is increased.”

 BOGER: “Restless, chilly and nauseated.”

 ”Bitter vomiting, after chill or during fever.”

 TEMPLETON: pain in sternum on breathing in cold air in influenza.

 CLINICAL: Catarrhal fever; influenza; dengue fever; rheumatic fever; bilious fever; remittent fever; typhoid; fevers with gastric derangement.

 POTENCY: It has cured in all potencies from the the tincture to the cm.

 RELATIONSHIP: 

 Compare: Bry. (In Eup-per. The pains make the the patient restless); Chel. And Podo.

Influenzinum

– The nosode of influenza has with many practitioners taken the place of Baptisia as the routine remedy in epidemics.

 – It may be given in the 12th or 30th potency, either in the form of tincture, pilules, or discs; or ten globules may be dissolved in six ounces of water, and of this a dessertspoonful may be given for a dose.

 – It may be repeated every two hours.

 – This will be found sufficient to control a large proportion of the cases.

 – The general directions I give to my patients are these : When “colds” appear in a family let all those who are unaffected take Arsen. 3 thrice daily, and let the patients take Influ. 30 every hour or two.

 – This generally prevents the spread of the trouble and clears up the “colds,” whether they are of the influenza type or not.

 – Influenza has the property of developing old troubles, and thus it takes an infinite variety of forms in different persons, so that Influ. need not be expected to cure all cases unaided, or, indeed, to be appropriate to every case.

 Relations

 – I find Influ. compatible with Act. r., Ars., Bell.

 – Bry., Hep., Merc., and many others.

Influenza, measles. Weakness and fatigue. Influenza encephalitis. Syndrome of meningitis. Post – influenza depressive neurosis. Entero-colitis of influenza. Diarrhea of influenza.

 General ill feeling with chill, headache, diffused pains. Neurotic, depressive persons. Anorexia. Stiffness. Tendency to hypotension. Hyperthermia. Sycosis.

Clinical: Catarrh. Colds. Influenza.

Compare:

 (1) Oscilococcinum.

 (2) Mimosa pudica – Inflammation of the eyes and nasal mucosa. Headache, worse by movement, better while closing eyes. Diarrhea with colic and irritating stools.

 (3) Galphimia glauca – Hypersensitiveness to change of weather, Hypersecretion of nasal and ocular mucous.

 (4) Luffa operculata: Fronto-occipital headache. Acute or chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa.

 Relations

 Compatible with: Cimic., Ars., Bell., Bry., Hep., Merc. and many others.

            Influenzinum is indicated for poor reaction, when the patient’s recovery is poor after influenza. It also acts as a preventive if given in the autumn of the year. Someone has said Influenza is the cowbird of the disease family, “depositing its germ in the nest with every other infection”. Fifty percent of all chronic cases have chronic influenza as one of its complications and often it is the sole cause of their chronic state. Obsessions, delusions and other anxious states may show their appearances to long after the acute attack of influenza as not to be readily associated with it. While Influenzinum is rarely of benefit in an acute case of influenza, its use in the chronic case is frequently astonishing. Patients who have been ailing or complaining since an attack of this disease, recent or remote, will also show a marked relief from their symptoms. It may also be given for prophylaxis with some surprising results. C.E.  Wheeler says, “In any epidemic the corresponding nosode can be given for this purpose and will be found valuable. Generally speaking, a dose of the 30th will protect for at least a fortnight. For the more resistant and recurrent infections like influenza, in our judgement, the nosode Influenzinum is best mixed with one of the Tuberculinum nosodes, either Tuberculinum bovimum or Bacillinum. All the Tuberculins suit that type of patient who seems to pick up nasal catarrh on the least provocation and the mixture suggested is effective against the common cold as well as against influenza. A monthly dose of the 30th potency is usually sufficient to confer protection.”

 The original Influenzinum was prepared merely from the nasal smear of a patient suspected to suffer from influenza. The smear probably contained several other organisms besides the virus. Further, the virus is known to undergo mutation, so that the virus of one epidemic differs from the virus of another. Gutman gives indications for this nosode.

 Stearns writes:

 “In the matter of influenza, the acute cases are quickly cured by the proper Influenzin nosode and the chronic cases are so modified by the nosode as later to make easy the selection of the true chronic similimum.

 “Every case of acute encephalitis required Influenzin, as does every chronic  post-encephalitic case, but in chronic influenza as in all chronic conditions, the nosode will not complete the cure.”

 “Infection originally occurs because of some constitutional tendency. The disease factor is best met by the nosode – the constitutional by the constitutional remedy.  In post-encephalitic cases, remedies of the type of the Belladonna group are likely to be required after Influenzin has done its work and, finally the more deeply-acting constitutional remedies are needed. In intuitive prescribing, however, the only guide to the follow-up remedies after Influenzin has finished, lies in the symptoms as they develop. It is like  a house of mystery; Influenzin is the key which opens the front door but each room has a secret combination lock of its own.”

“Dr. Pierre Schmidt sent over the first influenza nosode, calling it Spanish influenzin and this has proved the best in the chronic forms of the disease, especially with patients who had severe attacks in the 1918 epidemic.”

 “Influenzin antitoxin acts best in the recent acute cases and in the chronic form of more recent origin.”

 “Influenzin meningeal is seldom useful, but it is needed it acts brilliantly.”

 “Influenzin serum is sometimes helpful.”

 “Recently we have obtained three new Influenzins, which are Influenzin nekel catarrhalis, Influenza vaccine polyvalent and Influenzin polyvalent. The last two are from Lederle.”

But personally I prefer to give Cadmium metallicum to antidote the sequelae of influenza. I have seen its remarkably beneficial effect in numerous cases.

 A patient whom I treated recently had not been well since Influenza. His symptoms were great weakness in the body, especially the legs, felt unsteady and heavy, confusion of mind, etc. All these symptoms had appeared since an attack of Influenza which had  occurred two years back. Cad. completely cured him. This indication has been given by  William Gutman who has published the provings of Cadmium metallicum.

Mezereum

Epidemics occurring in January and February often call for Mezereum.

            Specifics ?-how dare you teach specifics ? Is this the Homoeopathy of Hahnemann, which you profess to teach ?”. As a matter of fact, it is. Hahnemann tells us, if we would only heed, that for “miasmatic” diseases, acute or chronic, i.e.  for diseases caused by parasitic organisms, which have in each case the same origin, the same symptoms, the same course, “a specific should be found”. And doubtless kerion is a specific parasitic infection, caused by micro-organisms, and having the same origin, the same symptoms and the same course; for which, so far as epidemic experience with a dozen or so cases is concerned, Mezereum is the specific; and it proved itself so by acting magnificently in the single dose of the highest potency one had been able to lay hands on. Therefore let us once again quote Hahnemann, in regard to “Infectious diseases, caused by a peculiar contagium (a miasm of tolerably fixed character such as small-pox, measles, true scarlet fever, etc. . . . These seem so fixed in their course as to be always recognized as old acquaintances. They can be named, and we can endeavour to lay down some fixed method of treatment suitable, as a rule, for each of them”.

 We may here, with advantage, give in extension Dr. Carroll Dunhams classical case of the cure of an almost lifelong deafness, with Mezereum. He traced it back to a severe attack of just such tinea capitis, in childhood; and, by treating that ancient condition-all those years later-he managed to restore hearing, utility and happiness to a boy whose life had, till then, been blasted. It was a case, evidently, of what we may venture to call, “chronic kerion”. It bears out our contention, fully explained in No. 12 Post-graduate Correspondence Course, that, in ill-health dating from some acute illness, where the patient, apparently recovered, has never been well since, we may be really dealing with Chronic Measles, Chronic Diphtheria, Chronic Vaccinosis (Burnett), Chronic Pneumonia, etc., and we may prove our case (to our own satisfaction, anyway) by seeing the rapid leap to better life and energy, after a dose or two of Diphtherinum, Morbillinum, Pneumococcin, Scarlatinum or Streptococcin, Variolinum, or Thuja, etc., according to the “past history” of the sufferer.

 We make no apology for reproducing the case in full, together with the lessons deduced from it, by one of the past masters of homoeopathic prescribing; although it has been again and again alluded to by teachers of Homoeopathy.

Indications

 – It is a SPECIFIC remedy for the following conditions: Epidemics occurring in January and February often call for Mezereum.

Phytolacca decandra

– There is one form of sore throat in which I have found it of the greatest service – the so-called “diphtheritic sore throat.”

 – Dark red, swollen mucous membrane and tonsils, pain on swallowing, eruption of herpetic, whitish, or grey spots on fauces, swelling and tenderness of the glands externally at the angle of the jaw.

 – With these symptoms there are generally headache, backache, wandering rheumatic pains and fever.

 – I have cleared up numberless cases of this kind with Phyt. 30. 

 – Not infrequently epidemic influenza has taken this form, and then Phyt. has been my most successful remedy.

There is one form of sore throat in which Clarke has found of the greatest service the so-called “diphtheria sore throat.” Dark red, swollen mucous membrane and tonsils. Pain on swallowing. Eruption of herpetic, whitish or gray spots on fauces. Swelling and tenderness of the gland externally at the angle of the jaw. With these symptoms there are generally headache, backache, wandering rheumatic pains and fever.

 Clarke has cleared up numberless cases of this kind with Phyt. 30c. Not infrequently epidemic influenza has taken this form and they Phyt. has been my most successful remedy.

Sang. affects the whole respiratory tract, irritates the nasal mucous membrane and causes coryza with pain at root of nose, lost or perverted sense of smell. Sensitive to the odor of flowers. Influenza, hay fever, ozaena and polyps have all come within its range.

 Laryngitis and membranous croup have been cured by it and I have found it meet a greater proportion of the tracheal and bronchial coughs of epidemic influenza than any other remedy.

 The chief features are: Violent, dry cough, wheezing, whistling, metallic, sputa almost impossible to raise. Clarke has seen several cases of this kind rescued from apparently imminent death by Sang., the relief comes by the expectoration of a thick plug of mucus which was causing suffocation and which the patient was too weak to dislodge.

 After influenza children often get a cough scarcely distinguishable from whooping cough. It is also the remedy for severe cough after whooping cough the cough returns with every fresh cold.

 Offensiveness and acridity characterize the discharges of Sang. and the breath and flatus are also offensive.

Sulphuricum acidum

Cooper with reason contends that many ague cases, supposed to have been cured with Chi. sul. (Sulphate of Quinine), were really cured by the Sulphuric acid used in dissolving it.

“More-over,” says Cooper, “in all epidemic diseases – influenza, cholera, small-pox, and c.

Sul. ac. is often called for by the concomitant symptoms.

In the neuralgia of influenza it has cured very severe pain over the whole left side of the head, face, and neck, coming on from exposure to draught; in the diarrhoeas of cholera times it certainly arrests mischief; in the diarrhoeas of emaciated children it is often called for.

Wyethia helenoides

– The first proving gave Wyeth. a definite and important place in throat affections.

 – These symptoms have been confirmed : “Throat feels swollen; epiglottis dry, and has a burning sensation; constant desire to swallow saliva to relieve the dryness yet affording no comfort; swallows with difficulty.

 – Prickling, dry sensation in posterior nares; sensation as if something were in nasal passages; an effort to clear them through the throat affords no relief.

 – Burning sensation in bronchial tubes.

 – Dry, hacking cough, caused by tickling in epiglottis.”

 – The following case was reported to me : A boy had been kept awake many nights by a persistent, dry, hacking, nervous cough.

 – Wyeth. 30 cured in one dose.

 – Hale gives these cases from Selfridge :

 – (1) Dry asthma in a lady; Wyeth. gave prompt relief in several paroxysms.

 – (2) Chronic follicular pharyngitis with dryness of pharynx and burning in epiglottis.

 – In a severe epidemic of influenza Hale found Wyeth. most successful.

Lobelia inflata

Two other remedies should be mentioned, because they help a difficult type of case, the one with the failing heart.

 A patient with a mitral stenosis, the highly coloured, florid patient who tends to become very cyanotic, with acute dyspnoea as the pains become more intense, responds very well to Lobelia.

 The cyanosis clears, the respiratory distress eases, and the tendency to acute oedema of the vulva, which is so often troublesome in these patients, is very much lessened.

Carbo vegetabilis

 The other drug for patients with a failing heart is Carbo Veg., and it is given on the general indications for Carbo Veg.

 The patient is tired out, the pulse rate is increasing, and volume poor.

 The contractions are becoming weaker.

 The skin surface is cold and clammy.

 There may be a history that there has been a tendency to oedema of the ankles in the later months of pregnancy, probably with very troublesome varicose veins, and varices of the vulva.

 There is blueness of the lips and a feeling of air hunger.

 The legs and feet are icy cold, and the patient wants to get warm, wants to be covered up all the time, but also wants to feel movement of air.

 In that type of case, where there was a possibility of a difficult delivery, the patient should have quite a normal delivery after some doses of Carbo Veg., which can be given in high potencies.

Lycopodium

In appearance, they give you the impression of being anxious; they have rather a worried look, and a practically perpetual frown. They are rather sallow in colour, a sort of yellow-ash-grey appearance, and they have obvious acute respiratory distress. The lips tend to be somewhat cyanosed, very often they are definitely cyanosed, and there may be a somewhat dusky appearance generally. If you see these patients latish in the Subdivision, about the fourth or fifth day, you will find them becoming definitely weak, and rather torpid and sluggish.

 -The mentality of the typical Lycopodium pneumonia patients is a little difficult to get hold of because although they are anxious, worried about themselves, wanting attention, wanting somebody about, yet they are peevish and irritable with those trying to help them. They are rather domineering, they are definitely exacting in their demands on their attendants, and yet that is coupled up with the desire to get as much attention as they possibly can. After they have been asleep they are very liable to wake up in a very cross-tempered mood.

 -Associated with the respiratory distress, there is a somewhat pinched appearance of the nose which is not unlike the Antimonium tart.

 -appearance, and there is a good deal of flapping of the nostrils.

 -But there is more general twitching of the facial muscles in Lycopodium, and the nose gives the impression of being dusky, rather than sooty as in Antimonium tart.

 -Another point about the Lycopodium patients is that they always tend to have a very noticeable yellow discoloration of the teeth. Very often they complain of a sour taste in the mouth, and the tongue tends to be coated white. In addition to this coat, there are often definitely sensitive spots along the margin of the tongue, and the patient often complains that if feels stiff and swollen. Lycopodium patients are rather variable as regards thirst. Sometimes you will get a Lycopodium patient who is definitely thirsty, but again you may get a patient who is not thirsty at all. If they are thirsty they prefer warm drinks to cold. And if they have much to drink it is very apt to produce a sensation of fullness and flatulence; it may actually produce a sense of nausea.

 -The respiration in the Lycopodium case is always very difficult, short, panting, laboured breathing. The patients usually complain of a feeling of tightness in the chest, or even of an actual sensation of constriction.

 -The cough is always a very difficult, paroxysmal; violent, spasmodic cough. Very often the patient complains of intense rawness in the chest after coughing.

 -The sputum is always scanty, tough, and very difficult to get up.

 -It is very often a yellowish-grey, blood-stained sputum, and not infrequently the patients tell you that it tastes definitely salty.

 -As a rule the patients complain of feeling chilly. They are sensitive to cold, but they dislike a stuffy room. Usually there is very little sweating, the skin may be slightly moist but there is no definite sweat. In most of these cases you will find your maximum involvement on the right side of the chest rather than the left. And you will always get a complaint of a good deal of abdominal flatulence, particularly is this so after taking anything in the way of food; the patient feels absolutely bloated on any attempt to eat.

 -As a rule these Lycopodium patients are very uncomfortable if they are lying on the back, their breathing becomes more laboured, and they are more distressed. They are very much better sitting up.

 -Another small point is that you will very often see these patients sleeping with their eyes half open. Not infrequently they have a very restless kind of sleep, and they often dream of fatal accidents.

 -In the Lycopodium case there is one very constant period during which there is a general aggravation of the patient’s distress, and that is between the hours of 4 and 8 o’clock in the evening. During this time you will get an increase of temperature, increased respiratory distress, and very often increased cough. Very often the temperature swings up about 4 o’clock, stays up until about 8 o’clock, and then begins to drop.

 -As regards the temperature in Lycopodium, commonly it is a medium high one, ranging round about 103ø. The pulse tends to be rather compressible, soft and rapid.

 -Lycopodium cases respond well to 10m’s repeated 2 hourly.

            -We now come to the much more difficult problem of firstly, the complicated pneumonia complicated either by the fact that the patient has a mixed infection, or by the fact that he is a very unhealthy patient to start with and secondly, the creeping type of pneumonia or the frank broncho-pneumonia. These are the types of case that are much more difficult to handle. It is more difficult to decide what your dosage should be, and what your repetition should be, and it is the type of case which seldom responds to one prescription. Mostly your first drug improves matters and the patient becomes very much better, the symptoms change, and you then have to give a second prescription to clear up the case.

 -When you are getting on to the later stages of a pneumonia it is a little difficult to choose your right potency. Suppose you are called in to a pneumonia that has been running five, six, or seven days, and the patient is obviously flagging; it requires a considerable amount of judgment to give the right potency, because you can over do it, you can give too high, to which they cannot respond, and so do them harm; on the other hand you can miss the chance of clearing up the whole thing by giving too low and not setting up enough response. It is certainly difficult to choose right potencies for these cases.

 -In a certain type of mixed infection mixed influenzal pneumococcal infection. I think there is a grave danger in giving too high a potency.

 -It is difficult to find a happy medium. In some of these bad cases if you give too high a potency you kill the patients, if too low they do not respond, and it varies in different patients even in the same epidemic. What they found in America was that in cases of that sort their best potency was a Im, which seemed to be high but not dangerous, and eventually they always gave a Im in these severe cases, with very good results.

 -Where you are dealing with the frankly alcoholic patient with a pneumococcal infection, I think you are quite safe with the higher potencies.

 -So, in practice, what I have come to is that in these unpleasant, mixed infections, I tend to give a Im rather than a 1 o m, because it seems to produce less disturbance and yet produces a very definite reaction; and I repeat at about the same intervals as for an ordinary, straight pneumonia. But where I am dealing with a frankly alcoholic patient I tend to give higher potencies, probably a 10m, possibly a cm. And, incidentally, I find that in the majority of these alcoholic patients one is wise to give some alcoholic stimulus during the time of their acute crisis they do better when they have it, it steadies them, and they are less liable to become delirious.

 -Then as regards the drugs which you may require for these complicated pneumonias, it is a little difficult to differentiate between those required for a case of mixed infection and those for an alcoholic case, because although the cause may be different in the two cases the symptom picture one sees in the bed is very similar whether one is dealing with a bad mixed infection or with an alcoholic patient, so one has to group these drugs together. I think some of them possibly apply more commonly to the alcoholic type, but they may equally be required in the more septic type without an alcoholic history. To cover this type of case one has to consider about half a dozen drugs, which group themselves pretty well together; they are Baptisia, Mercury, Rhus, Pyrogen, Hepar, and Lachesis.

 -I find it very difficult to give you a key drug of this group.

 -At one time I used to consider that Mercury was the outstanding one for the alcoholic type of pneumonia; now I think one more commonly gets indications for Lachesis in this type; occasionally one gets indications for Baptisia. Again in the so-called septic type, I used to look on Baptisia as the key drug, but nowadays I see as many Pyrogen and Lachesis cases in these septic pneumonias; they run very close together.

Baptisia tinctoria

 -Taking the ordinary case of rather virulent pneumonia in which there are indications for Baptisia, there is usually a history of a fairly slow onset of the Subdivision. Occasionally in the course of a very virulent epidemic you will find Baptisia cases developing with astonishing rapidity, even in a few hours, but in the majority of cases, in an average winter, the onset is much slower.

 -The first outstanding characteristic of Baptisia pneumonias is the befogged mental confusion. The patients are dull mentally, they find it difficult to think, they find it difficult to answer your questions, and you will probably have difficulty in taking the case as very often they do not remember the details of their illness.

 -Their speech is rather slow, and often you will find them becoming middly delirious quite early in the course of the Subdivision. It is a gentle, wandering delirium, with again a good deal of confusion as to where they are and what they feel like. Very often you will find them droswsy; you can wake them up, but if you do you will get an incomplete answer and they they will drowse off again.

 -Another Baptisia symptom is that in spite of their drowsy state these patients are restless. They have generalized aching pain, they complain of their bed being had, it hurts them to lie, and you will find them moving about to get a more comfortable position. Sometimes that restlessness is associated with their inabilité to locate what is happening to them, they feel their arms or legs are uncomfortable and they move about to make sure where they are, or what is happening to them.

 -Another point is that these Baptisia patients are always cyanosed.

 -They have rather a puffy, cyanotic appearance, their eyes look heavy, usually half closed, their lips are cyanosed, and there is a lot of sordes about the mouth. The mouth itself is always offensive, and very, very dry indeed. The tongue usually has a brown coat down the centre; it may be yellow to begin with, but it usually very rapidly becomes brown.

 -The tongue itself is very dry to touch. But, in spite of this intense dryness of the tongue, you do not get excessive thirst in the Baptisias.

 -They will take a sip of water, but that is all they want; for one thing they cannot be bothered, and for another the thirst is not excessive.

 -The skin surface of the Baptisia patient is always hot and damp, and the patients often complain of very unpleasant waves of heat all over. Always with their damp sweat they develop a very heavy, unpleasant odour.

 -The main complaint is a feeling of intense oppression in the chest, and with this sensation they are rather afraid to lie down because lying seems to increase it and makes them feel as if they are going to suffocate.

 -Very often they will tell you that the feeling of compression is not so much a sensation of the chest wall being tight as of the lungs inside being compressed, and this at once distinguishes it from the ordinary tightness of the chest which you find in so many of the other drugs.

 -Another characteristic about these patients is that they have a rather scanty sputum, which is very sticky and difficult to expel, in spite of the fact that there is often a good deal of rale in the chest.

 -In appearance the patient is not unlike a very much more toxic Bryonia patient.

Pyrogenium

 -The Pyrogen pneumonias are usually much more rapid in their onset than the Baptisias. Mentally the patients are quite different. You will always get a certain amount of loquacity in your Pyrogen patients.

 -They are rather impatient, they talk fast, they talk a good deal, and they are liable to be rather irritable.

 -In appearance the Pyrogen patients tend to have a brighter flush, they are not quite so cyanotic as the Baptisias. On any exertion, coughing, or anything of that sort, they tend to flush up much more, and they then become definitely dusky. After a paroxysm of coughing the colour tends to ebb, and they may become definitely pale.

 -The temperature tends to be definitely higher than in the average Baptisia case, running up to 104ø or 105ø, and it is always accompanied by very considerable hot sweat.

 -The tongue in Pyrogen and Baptisia cases is ometimes very difficult to distinguish as you will get Pyrogen patients with one that is almost as dry as it is in Baptisia, and with the same kind of brown, dry coating. But occasionally you will come across a Pyrogen patient with a much redder tongue with less coating on it, and which is very dry and accompanied by a good deal of thirst.

 -Both these patients suffer from waves of heat, but in Pyrogen they are always followed by waves of shivering they are alternate hot and cold waves. It is almost as if the patient suddenly blushed from his toes to his head, exactly the same thing as would be described as “hot flushes”.

 -In both the Baptisia and the Pyrogen there is exactly the same complaint of general soreness, which is described in the same way; they say the bed is too hard and they move about to try to get an easy position, which makes them restless. They give exactly the same description of not knowing where their arms and legs are, and they both say they are moving about in order to bring their sensation back to normal. You cannot distinguish the one from the other in this respect.

 -There is one point you can tack on to these aching pains, and that is that in pyrogen cases you quite commonly hear the statement that the illness started as an aching in the legs which gradually spread up.

 -It is a quite frequent story.

 -In contrast to the chest symptôms in Baptisia, the Pyrogen case suffers much more from a sense of general oppression of the chest, with a good deal of aching soreness actually on the chest wall. And the respirations in the Pyrogen case are always very rapid and very shallow, which is frequently the case in Baptisia also.

 -The sputum in the Pyrogen case tends to be more profuse, it is somewhat pussy, and it is always offensive.

 -Then there is one other point which at once distinguishes the Pyrogen pneumonia from that of any other drug in the Materia Medica, and that is that there is always a discrepancy between the pulse and the temperature. That discrepancy may be a very rapid pulse with a comparatively low temperature; or equally commonly it may be a high temperature and a comparatively slow pulse. It may go either way, but it is the discrepancy between the pulse and the temperature that really matters.

Lachesis mutus

 -Lachesis is very similar to Baptisia and Pyrogen. I think in the majority of cases you will find your Lachesis pneumonias cropping up later in the winter or in the early spring; You very often find them cropping up just at the end of a cold spell when the weather is beginning to get warmer. In these pneumonias you have to acquire an entirely fresh picture of Lachesis from the one you associate with Lachesis in the chronic patient. For instance, you know your chronic Lachesis patient simply talks your head off, but in the pneumonias where Lachesis is indicated you are much more likely to get the extremely toxic, fuddled, maudlin, drunken sort of patient. They are rather heavy looking, with a mottled, cyanotic appearance, a very puffy-looking face, and puffy, swollen-looking, cyanotic lips. Their speech is thick, they have difficulty in articulating, and they are liable to drop half their words. They stumble over what they are saying, and frequently they leave a sentence half finished.

 -Another point that is sometimes helpful in spotting your Lachesis patient is that their very cyanotic, swollen-looking lips tend to become incredibly sensitive to touch.

 -Quite frequently these people go on to a frank delirium tremens, with all sorts of delusions. They hear voices, they imagine all sorts of things, they become suspicious, they think they are being poisoned, and they refuse to take their medicine.

 -As far as the appearance of the tongue is concerned, it is always a very dry, swollen, dark red tongue. And in spite of that dry tongue you will get a good deal of very sticky, stringy saliva in the mouth. These Lachesis patients have great difficulty in coughing, they have a horrible feeling of suffocation, they have great difficulty in breathing, and they are simply terrified to lie down. They hate to go to sleep because of this sense of suffocation, and it they do drowse off they are almost certain to wake up with a sense of suffocation and a most distressing attack of coughing.

 -There are one or two definite Lachesis symptoms which are useful.

 -These patients mostly get a very violent, surging headache with their cough. It feels as if all the blood in their body is forced into their head. Their head is hot and bursting and yet at the same time they often complain that their legs, feet, and very often their hands, too, are feeling icy cold.

 -Then with their chest involvement they always have a horrible feeling of fullness in the chest, which may be just behind the sternum, or it may be in either side. More commonly the main involvement is on the left side in Lachesis pneumonias.

 -There are two very typical Lachesis symptoms. One is that with their respiratory distress these patients always have a horrible choking sensation, a feeling of tightness round their throat, and they cannot bear to have the blankets up round their neck as they feel they would strangle if they did. The other is that although they get acute stabbing pains in the chest, very often on the left side of the chest, they cannot bear any pressure on the chest at all. This distinguishes Lachesis from so many of the other drugs with stabbing pains which are relieved by firm pressure on the chest.

 -As regards the sputum, in Lachesis it is usually scanty. The patient feels as if he had a lump in the chest and as if he could shift it a certain distance but when it got half way it stuck. You can hear the rattle in the chest, and yet the patient cannot expel anything.

 -Occasionally you come across an apparent contradiction in that sort of muddled, besotted patient. These Lachesis patients sometimes develop a hyperaesthesia over the the affected area of the chest, which is exceedingly sensitive to touch. They may develop a hyperaesthesia to noise. They may become very sensitive to light. And they are often hyperaesthesia to smell; for instance, you notice that during the period when smoking is allowed in the wards the Lachesis patient is enormously distressed, quite out of all proportion to the actual odour.

Mercurius solubilis

 -I think you are liable to meet with Mercury pneumonias about the the same time of the year as Lachesis ones, that is in the later part of the winter. In their pneumonias at first sight it is awfully difficult to distinguish your Mercury mentality from the Lachesis mentality, but in appearance I think there is a certain amount of difference.

 -Like the the Lachesis patient, the Mercury patient tends to have a very puffy face, but it is rather more livid in colour and gives you the impression of being more sickly looking, the patient looks more ill somehow. I think the Mercury patient is a little more sweaty, and the skin looks a little more greasy.

 -As regards mentality, you get very much the same sort of D.T. ‘s developing in the Mercury patients as in the Lachesis, and they become just about as suspicious. Their speech is almost as difficult, it is rather hurried, and they tend to fall over their words; but it is much more a case of stammering than of failing to finish a sentence in the way Lachesis patients do. I think the Mercury patients are rather more irritable, and they are definitely more anxious and more restless.

 -The next thing which helps you is that in the Mercury patients there is very marked, generalized tremor, tremor of the hands, tremor of the tongue, tremor of the facial muscles.

 -Then in Mercury there is much more commonly a tendency to ulceration of the corners of the mouth, and a much more profuse, watery salivation; it is not so stringy as in Lachesis.

 -Quite often you will find definite aphthous patches in the mouth, on the insides of the cheek, or on the tongue, and these usually sting and burn on touch.

 -The appearance of the two tongues is dissimilar. In Mercury it is a rather swollen, flabby, pale, greasy looking tongue. But if the patient has developed definite D.T. ‘s you will find it becoming more coated and tending to be rather drier. The patients usually complain of an unpleasant, sweetish, offensive taste.

 -In these Mercury patients there is always a pretty profuse, generalized sweat. As a rule there is a swinging temperature, and you can link on to that the general Mercury instability to heat, they are either far too hot or far too cold. The Lachesis patients, of cour, are always hot, they cannot stand heat. And incidentally your Lachesis patients are thirsty, they want cold drinks, and they very often get a horrible choking sensation if they attempt to take anything hot; it very much aggravates their distress and aggravates their embarrassment in breathing. The Mercury patients tend to be much more thirsty than the Lachesis ones, and they have an incessant desire for ice-cold drinks.

 -The cough in Mercury tends to be rather different. It is usually a dry, racking cough. And here you will very frequently get a typical Mercury indication, which is that the cough tends to come in double paroxysms. The patient has a violent paroxysm, then a pause, then another paroxysm, and then a period of peace.

 -Another distinction is that as a rule you get your main involvement on the right side in Mercury, rather than on the left side as in Lachesis.

 -Very often it is the right lower lobe which is affected, and there are sharp stabbing pains going right through to the back.

 -As far as the sensation in the chest is concerned, it is not unlike the Lachesis feeling that the chest is full, and with their paroxysms of coughing the patients often tell you they feel as if their chest would simply burst.

 -Finally, the sputum in Mercury is, I think, rather more profuse than in Lachesis; it is rather more liquid, it is usually pretty dark in colour, and it is always offensive.

 -In discussing these complicated pneumonias you will notice I have taken all the rather hot, congested, muttering types together. There are two other drugs which I ought to mention for the same conditions, and the distinguishing point about them is that they are both definitely chilly, in other words, the patients are sensitive to cold, which immediately differentiates them from the four drugs we have already taken. These two are Hepar sulph. and Rhus tox.

Sulphur

 -Where you are dealing with a Hepar pneumonia you always have a septic type to contend with, and you get the impression that the patient is very ill. As a rule Hepar patients are palish in appearance, although they may have a somewhat hectic flush.

 -The skin surface is usually moist, with a rather sour-smelling sweat.

 -The first thing that will strike you about these patients is their extreme sensitiveness to cold. Your Hepar patients are very chilly, they want their blankets right up to their necks, they want their room as hot as they can have it, they hate to have any draught in the neighbourhood at all.

 -Mentally, they are very difficult. They have a horrible, discontented, dissatisfied, critical outlook. They have a marvellous faculty of remembering any unpleasant occurrence that they have had. They will probably tell you they have seen another doctor the day before and he did not do them any good; or else they will tell you that the nurse did not carry out your instructions.

 -They always have a complaint of some kind.

 -These Hepar patients are definitely over-sensitive. They are disturbed by their surroundings, they are disturbed by any noise in their neighbourhood, and they very often react unpleasantly to particular people, for instance you will find they take a dislike to one particular nurse in the ward, and nothing she can do is any good.

 -Their speech is always hasty, the words simply tumble out of them in a gush, and it is usually a complaint of some kind that they have to talk about.

 -They tend to develop a definite labial herpetic eruption, or a crack at the corner of the mouth. The upper lip tends to be rather swollen, thickened, and very often reddened. Quite often in these Hepar pneumonias there is a deep split in the centre of the lower lip.

 -The tongue is always very sensitive. Very often they complain of a hot, burning tongue, or of a burning tip to the tongue, and you often find aphthous patches scattered about the mouth, either on the sides of the tongue, or on the lips, and they are always horribly sensitive. These patients usually complain of a rather bitter taste.

 -One point which always strikes me as a contradiction in the Hepar patients, is that, in spite of their very sensitive mouth, they like rather highly tasting drinks and food, something with a bit of a bite about it.

 -These patients have two main physical complaints. One is a sense of extreme weakness in the chest. The other and this is much more common is acute stabbing pains in the chest. These pains are accompanied by a definite aggravation from lying on the affected side. You will find as we go along that the position taken up by the patient in pneumonia is constantly cropping up as a differentiating point; one could almost split the drugs into two groups, those in which the patient is ameliorated by lying on the affected side and those in which the patient is aggravated by it.

 -As regards the cough, in Hepar it is always a very choking, strangling, spasmodic cough It comes in quite frequent paroxysms, and is accompanied by acute dyspnoea. In these paroxysms you will find the patient sitting up in bed with the head tilted well back, and in their pneumonias the cough is accompanied by a very profuse, usually purulent, blood- stained sputum. A striking thing about the cough is that it is appallingly easily produced by any cold, for instance, you merely have to wave anything in the neighbourhood of a typical Hepar patient to produce one of these spasms, and if the patient even puts a hand out of the blankets a paroxysm will be started if the hand gets chilled.

 -As a rule the temperature in these Hepar cases is a rather swinging, septic type of temperature. It is accompanied by very profuse sweating, and yet in spite of the sweating there is not a definite drop in temperature and the patient feels if anything more uncomfortable for it.

 -Any slight effort on the patient’s part will produce one of these violent sweats.

 -These Hepar cases always feel very much worse after they have been asleep. You expect your pneumonias to wake up feeling better if they have a decent sleep, but the Hepar always feel much worse. Their sleep is unrestful and they have very distressing dreams, very often they are dreams of fire.

 -There are two periods at which you get marked aggravation in Hepar.

 -One is round about 6 or 7 o’clock in the evening, when the patients very often have a rise of temperature. The other is about 2 o’clock in the morning. At this time the patients very often have an acute paroxysm of coughing. They are liable to become very exhausted by this and may settle down afterwards and fall asleep, and if so you will get your post-sleep aggravation later in the morning.

Rhus toxicodendron

 -The other chilly drug for this mixed type of infection is Rhus tox.

 -I think in the majority of cases the Rhus tox. pneumonias develop somewhat slowly, and you will very often get a history that the onset of the pneumonia was caused by the patient’s being out and getting soaked damp in particular is the exciting cause of Rhus pneumonias, and especially cold damp.

 -In appearance these Rhus patients are always somewhat cyanotic, they are rather dusky in colour, and they have a moist skin, very often they have a profuse sweat. The lips are very cyanotic, and extensive herpetic eruptions are developed quite early in the Subdivision. I think in Rhus the herpes tends to appear first of all on the lower lip, but mostly by the time you see the patients they have pretty generalized, extensive herpetic eruptions about the mouth.

 -In their pneumonic attacks these Rhus patients are horribly distressed, they feel ill, they are anxious, and they are dredfully restless, they cannot get peace at all. They are very depressed, and have a general feeling of discouragement. They will very often tell you that they feel so horribly uncomfortable that they think they would be better if you could only let them out of bed, they say that if they could only move about a little more it would help them.

 -In their anxiety, particularly if they are becoming a bit muddled, they are very liable to get an obsession that they may be poisoned. Quite frequently in these cases you will find the patients becoming middly delirious. It is a low, restless, muttering delirium, and it is always accompanied by extreme physical restlessness as well.

 -In addition to general restlessness, in these Rhus cases you will usually get a complaint of pretty generalized aching pains, and the patients say these aching pains are easier if they keep on the move.

 -The tongue in Rhus is fairly suggestive. In the earlier stages, certainly in the stages before the patients become delirious, you get a typical Rhus tongue, which is a white-coated tongue with a red margin, or a red triangular tip. But by the time the muttering delirious state has developed the tongue will have tended to become brown, and intensely dry. The patients often complain of a horrible metallic sort of taste; they may call it coppery, or something of that sort, but in any case it is a very unpleasant metallic taste. There is always very marked, constant thirst.

 -The patients complain of the mouth and throat feeling appallingly dry, almost as if burnt, and they have incessant thirst, with a preference for cold drinks.

 -The cough is always a very troublesome one. It is a constant, tormenting cough, and the patients will usually tell you that they have a feeling of intense irritation in the middle of the chest, somewhere behind the sternum.

 -The respirations are always very shallow, short, hurried, and difficult.

 -These Rhus patients are just about as sensitive to cold as are the Hepar patients, and the attack of coughing will be brought on by any cold draught, or any exposure to cold. In both cases when examining your patients you have to be very careful not to uncover them too much or you will precipitate one of these violent paroxysms of coughing.

 -There is always a certain amount of laryngeal involvement in these Rhus cases, and it may be very troublesome indeed. Short of this, there is always at least a degree of hoarseness.

 -The sputum in the Rhus case is usually fairly profuse, rather liquid, dark in colour, and definitely blood-stained. The temperature tends to be of the swinging type, but it does not have the same degree of swing as you find in Hepar. As a rule there is rather a full pulse, which is fast and not well sustained.

 -There are two other points which sometimes help you in your Rhus diagnosis.

 -One is that after a paroxysm of coughing, when the patient has apparently got very hot, he immediately gets a horribly chilly sensation, sweats profusely, feels horribly cold, and wants to be covered up. And the other point, which you can link on to that, is that, although they are intensely thirsty, if they drink too much cold water they are apt to feel very chilly, and it is very likely to precipitate another paroxysm of coughing.

 -As a rule in these Rhus cases the times of maximum aggravation occur during the night rather than during the day. The patients become more restless, more worried, and more inclined to get out of bed, during the night.

Conclusion:

This was an attempt to compile and study the homoeopathic literature in the new light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Any homoeopathic medicine literature study and thereby addition of knowledge in this small piece of work is appreciable.

DR. CHAITANYA VAIDYA
(BHMS, MD SCHOLAR)

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